# Compiling Rust is NP-hard

...though it's not the flagship borrow checking that's at fault. What I
noticed, and would like to share with you today, is that the exhaustiveness
checking performed by the Rust compiler on `match`

patterns is a superset of the
SAT problem.

## Exhaustiveness checking

Consider the following code (playground):

```
fn update_thing(old_thing: Option<Thing>, new_thing: Option<Thing>) {
match (old_thing, new_thing) {
(None, Some(new)) => create_thing(new),
(Some(old), None) => delete_thing(old),
(None, None) => { /* nothing to be done */ },
}
}
```

As most Rustaceans already know, the compiler will reject this with the following error:

error[E0004]: non-exhaustive patterns: `(Some(_), Some(_))` not covered --> example.rs:4:11 | 4 | match (old_thing, new_thing) { | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ pattern `(Some(_), Some(_))` not covered | = help: ensure that all possible cases are being handled, possibly by adding wildcards or more match arms = note: the matched value is of type `(Option<Thing>, Option<Thing>)`

If you're like me, you'd eventually start wondering how this is actually computed. What's the most efficient algorithm you can write to do this? As it turns out, you can't do well in the worst case — and we'll prove this by a reduction from SAT.

## Boolean satisfiability

Boolean satisfiability, or SAT for short, is the problem of determining, given a boolean formula, whether there's a way of assigning 1 and 0 to the variables, such that the formula evaluates to 1. For example, the formula

```
A and (A xor B)
```

is satisfiable, by setting `A = 1`

and `B = 0`

, but

```
A and B and (A xor B)
```

is not satisfiable.

Most algorithms for solving this problem begin by transforming it into the
*conjunctive normal form*, or simply: AND-of-ORs. That is, the formula must be
of the form

```
(_ or _ or ...) and (_ or _ or ...) and ...
```

where the `_`

are filled in with variables and their negations. This makes the
structure of the formula much more uniform, and as such — way easier to work
with.

Our previous unsatisfiable example would look like this when transformed:

```
A and B and (A or B) and (!A or !B)
```

This is usually written as a list of constraints, where we need to pick one option from each line without conflicts:

```
A
B
A B
!A !B
```

While every formula can be transformed into this form by applying the rules of
Boolean algebra, it's a bit harder to do so without an exponential blowup. We
don't need to concern ourselves with the specifics, though.^{1} At this
point, the representation should look similar to a set of Rust patterns.

## Connecting the two

Thinking about the equivalence between exhaustiveness checking and
satisfiability is a *bit* tricky, as there's a negation between them at
every step of the reasoning — if a `match`

is rejected, `rustc`

will show us an
example value that we haven't covered, and this example is the solution to our SAT
problem. Thus, the values that match any given pattern are *rejected*. This
means that we could encode our example from the previous section like so:

```
match todo!() {
(false, _) => {} // A
(_, false) => {} // B
(false, false) => {} // A B
(true, true) => {} // !A !B
}
```

Let's take a closer look at the last pattern, `(true, true)`

. Because of it, any
value not covered must have `false`

in at least one of the variables. That's
exactly what our `!A !B`

clause says.

## Some benchmarks

Upon noticing this, I couldn't *not* check how rustc compares to other SAT
solvers. The standard file format for SAT problems is DIMACS CNF, and thanks
to Jannis Harder's `flussab_cnf`

library, processing it was a breeze.
I'll spare you the plumbing, but the core of the converter looks like this:

```
/// 0-based variable index, possibly negated — `false` in the `bool` field means negated
#[derive(Clone, Copy, PartialEq, Eq)]
struct Literal(usize, bool);
fn print_clause(mut clause: Vec<Literal>, num_variables: usize) {
let mut pattern = vec![None; num_variables];
for Literal(var, positive) in clause {
// We negate it here, as we need to match the assignments that *don't* satisfy
// the clause. While not doing this would generate an equivalent instance, this
// way the results rustc outputs directly correspond with our input.
pattern[var] = Some(!positive);
}
let pattern = pattern.into_iter()
.map(|pat| match pat {
None => "_",
Some(true) => "true",
Some(false) => "false",
})
.join(", ");
println!("({}) => {{}}", pattern);
}
```

I've pushed the full code to GitHub if you want to run some
experiments yourself. I chose to try it on the first instance of `uf20-91`

from the SATLIB benchmark problems. This is a randomly generated
problem with 20 variables and 91 clauses. It is not by any means hard — even
my simple implementation of the basic DPLL algorithm solves it in less than a
millisecond.

How does rustc compare? It takes 15 seconds, and produces the following output:

warning: unreachable pattern --> test.rs:34:1 | 34 | (_, _, _, _, _, _, true, _, _, _, _, false, _, true, _, _, _, _, _, _) => {} | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | = note: `#[warn(unreachable_patterns)]` on by default warning: unreachable pattern --> test.rs:55:1 | 55 | (_, _, _, _, true, _, _, true, _, _, _, false, _, _, _, _, _, _, _, _) => {} | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ [...] warning: unreachable pattern --> test.rs:92:1 | 92 | (_, _, _, false, true, _, _, _, _, _, _, _, _, _, _, true, _, _, _, _) => {} | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ error[E0004]: non-exhaustive patterns: `(false, true, true, true, false, false, false, true, true, true, true, false, false, true, true, false, true, true, true, true)`, `(true, false, false, false, false, true, false, false, false, false, false, false, true, true, true, false, true, false, false, true)`, `(true, false, false, false, false, true, false, false, true, false, false, false, false, true, true, false, true, false, false, true)` and 4 more not covered --> test.rs:1:19 | 1 | fn main() { match todo!() { | ^^^^^^^ patterns `(false, true, true, true, false, false, false, true, true, true, true, false, false, true, true, false, true, true, true, true)`, `(true, false, false, false, false, true, false, false, false, false, false, false, true, true, true, false, true, false, false, true)`, `(true, false, false, false, false, true, false, false, true, false, false, false, false, true, true, false, true, false, false, true)` and 4 more not covered | = help: ensure that all possible cases are being handled, possibly by adding wildcards or more match arms = note: the matched value is of type `(bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool)` = note: this error originates in a macro (in Nightly builds, run with -Z macro-backtrace for more info) error: aborting due to previous error; 17 warnings emitted For more information about this error, try `rustc --explain E0004`.

So, unlike a basic SAT solver, it finds all the solutions and some redundant clauses. Though, even with these features, I wouldn't call its performance competitive 😛

## Improving the representation

If you take a look at the Rust code we produce, you'll notice that it's mostly
composed of `_`

. In fact, it's size is quadratic in the size of the input SAT
problem (since the number of both clauses and variables is linear in the input
size). While that's still a polynomial, and thus the proof of NP-hardness works
out, it still feels unoptimal.

What we could do instead, is use a tree instead of a simple list:

```
(bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool, bool)
(((bool, bool), (bool, bool)), ((bool, bool), (bool, bool)))
```

That way, if a branch is composed of only `_`

s, we can collapse it all into a
single `_`

. This makes a single clause take only `O(num_vars_in_clause log num_vars_total)`

characters, which means the entire thing is only linearithmic in the input size.

## Endsay

Does this mean that rustc should integrate an industrial-strength SAT solver? As hilarious as that would be, I'm advocating no such thing. This will only be a performance issue on pathological examples crafted by bored nerds, and I don't think precious engineering time should be spent on that. Besides, generalizing a SAT algorithm to handle the full expressive power of Rust's patterns might be, to borrow some language from mathematicians, non-trivial.

If you found this post interesting, you might also like my other writing. I mostly write about my bootstrapping project, in which I wrote a seed binary of 512 bytes, flashed it into a bootsector, and am now building up to a comfortable environment on top of it. I suppose that makes it the smallest possible self-hosting operating system.

Finally, SAT is a surprisingly deep and interesting field. Even though it's an NP-complete problem, modern solvers can handle practical problems with several thousands of variables. If you'd like to learn more, I can recommend Knuth's lecture on the topic, as well as Jannis Harder's blog series on Varisat. The Handbook of Satisfiability is good as a reference, too.

# Enjoyed this article?

You might like my other posts, too. If you'd like to be notified of new ones, you can follow me on Twitter or subscribe to the RSS feed.

I would like to thank my sponsors for their support: Michał Sidor and Tijn Kersjes.

^{1}

To be specific, some formulas will grow exponentially
when converted into an equivalent CNF form. However, we don't really care
about *equivalence*, but only *equisatisfiability* — in other words, we solve
this by introducing additional variables to the problem. If you think of the
input formula as a circuit of gates, add a variable for the state of every
internal wire. Then, we can express the constraint that the output of each
gate agrees with the inputs, separately for each gate.